The difference of wire cable and conductor wire

2021-12-15
THe  difference of wire cable and conductor wire
The outside of the cable has relatively perfect protection capacity, such as strong tensile, compressive, anti-corrosion, waterproof, flame retardant and other characteristics; Or with other particularity, such as shaft cable, shielded cable, etc.
Wire and cable are wire products used to transmit electric (magnetic) energy, information and realize electromagnetic energy conversion. Wires and cables in the broad sense are also referred to as cables, and cables in the narrow sense refer to insulated cables, which can be defined as: an aggregate composed of the following parts; One or more insulated cores, as well as their possible cladding, total protective layer and outer protective layer. The cable can also have additional uninsulated conductors.

The main features of this kind of products are: pure conductor metal, no insulation and sheath layer, such as steel cored aluminum strand, copper aluminum bus bar, electric locomotive line, etc; The processing technology is mainly pressure processing, such as melting, calendering, drawing, stranding / compression stranding, etc; The products are mainly used in suburban, rural, user main line, switch cabinet, etc.

The main features of this kind of products are: extruding (winding) the insulation layer outside the conductor, such as overhead insulated cable, or several cores stranded (corresponding to the phase line, zero line and ground wire of the power system), such as overhead insulated cable with more than two cores, or adding a sheath layer, such as plastic / rubber sheathed wire and cable. The main process technologies include drawing, stranding, insulation extrusion (wrapping), cable forming, armor and sheath extrusion, etc. different process combinations of various products are different.

The products are mainly used for strong electric energy transmission in power generation, distribution, transmission, transformation and power supply lines, with large current (tens of amps to thousands of AMPS) and high voltage (220V to 35kV and above).

The vast majority of wire and cable products are long strip products with exactly the same cross-section (cross-section) shape (ignoring the errors caused by manufacturing), which is determined by the characteristics used as lines or coils in the system or equipment. Therefore, to study and analyze the structural composition of cable products, we only need to observe and analyze its section.

The structural elements of wire and cable products can be divided into four main structural components: conductor, insulating layer, shielding and protective layer, as well as filling elements and tension bearing elements. According to the use requirements and application occasions of products, some products have very simple structure.

2. Cable material

In a sense, wire and cable manufacturing industry is an industry of material finishing and assembly. First, the material consumption is huge, and the material cost of cable products accounts for 80-90% of the total manufacturing cost; Second, there are many types and varieties of materials used, and the performance requirements are particularly high. For example, copper for conductor is required to have a purity of more than 99.95%, and some products should use oxygen-free high-purity copper; Third, the selection of materials will have a decisive impact on the manufacturing process, product performance and service life.

At the same time, the benefits of wire and cable manufacturing enterprises are also closely related to whether materials can be saved scientifically in material selection, processing and production management.

Therefore, the design of wire and cable products must be carried out at the same time as the selection of materials. Generally, several materials are selected and determined after process and performance screening test.

Materials for cable products can be divided into conductive materials, insulating materials, filling materials, shielding materials, protective layer materials, etc. according to their use parts and functions. But some of these materials are common to several structural members. In particular, thermoplastic materials, such as polyvinyl chloride and polyethylene, can be used on insulation or sheath as long as some formula components are changed.

The categories of materials used in the manufacture of cable products are very wide, and there are many varieties, specifications (brands).

3. Name and material of product structure

(1) Wire: the most basic and essential component of the product for current or electromagnetic wave information transmission.

Main materials: conductor is the abbreviation of conductive wire core. It is made of non-ferrous metals with excellent conductivity such as copper, aluminum, copper-clad steel and copper-clad aluminum. Optical fiber is used as conductor.

Bare copper wire and tinned wire; Single branch line and stranded wire; Tinned wire after stranding.

(2) Insulation layer: it is a component wrapped around the periphery of the conductor and plays the role of electrical insulation. That is, it can ensure that the transmitted current or electromagnetic wave and light wave only travel along the conductor and do not flow to the outside, and the potential on the conductor (i.e. the potential difference formed to the surrounding objects, i.e. the voltage) can be isolated, that is, it is necessary to ensure the normal transmission function of the conductor and the safety of external objects and people. Conductor and insulating layer are two basic components that must be included in cable products (except bare wires).

Main materials: PVC, PE, XLPE, polypropylene, PP, fluoroplastic F, rubber, paper, mica tape

(3) Filling structure: many wire and cable products are multi-core. After these insulated cores or pairs are cabled (or grouped for multiple times), one is that the shape is not round, and the other is that there is a large gap between the insulated cores. Therefore, the filling structure must be added during cable forming. The filling structure is to make the outer diameter of the cable relatively round, so as to facilitate tape wrapping and sheath extrusion.

Main material: PP rope

(4) Shielding: it is a component to isolate the electromagnetic field in cable products from the external electromagnetic field; Some cable products also need to be isolated from each other between different wire pairs (or wire groups). It can be said that the shielding layer is an "electromagnetic isolation screen". Conductor shielding and insulation shielding of high voltage cables are to homogenize the distribution of electric field.

Main materials: bare copper wire, copper clad steel wire, tinned copper wire

(5) Sheath: when wire and cable products are installed and run in various environments, they must have components that protect the product as a whole, especially the insulating layer, which is the sheath.

Because the insulating material is required to have excellent electrical insulation properties, the purity of the material must be very high and the impurity content must be very small; It is often unable to take into account its ability to protect the outside world. Therefore, various protective layer structures must bear the bearing or resistance to various external mechanical forces (i.e. installation, use occasions and in use), atmospheric environment resistance, chemical or oil resistance, prevention of biological invasion, and reduction of fire hazards.

Main materials: PVC, PE, rubber, aluminum, steel strip

(6) Tensile element: the typical structure is steel cored aluminum strand, optical fiber cable, etc. In short, the tensile element plays a major role in the special small and soft products developed, which require multiple bending and twisting.

Main material: steel wire
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Conductor refers to the material used as wire and cable, and also refers to wire in industry. It is generally made of copper or aluminum, but also made of silver wire (good conductivity and heat resistance), which is used to dredge current or conduct heat.
Copper wire cable harness manufacturer



A cable is usually a rope like cable twisted by several or groups of conductors [at least two in each group]. Each group of conductors are insulated from each other and often twisted around a center. The whole outer surface is covered with a highly insulated covering layer. It is mostly erected in the air or installed underground and underwater for telecommunications or power transmission.
Copper wire cable harness manufacturer